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Thursday, January 20, 2011

Trends and Techniques of Greenhouse Capsicum Production

Green House capsicum Production
CONTENTS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PRINCIPLE OF GREENHOUSE
  • HISTORY
  • STRUCTURE AND COMPONENTS OF GREENHOUSE
  • ADVANTAGES OF GREEN HOUSE TECHNOLOGY
  • TRENDS OF FARMERS TOWARDS POLYHOUSE
  • GREENHOUSE CAPSICUM PRODUCTION IN MID HILLS OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
  • MAJOR DISEASES OF GREENHOUSE CAPSICUM
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF GREENHOUSE CAPSICUM
  • MAJOR CONSTRAINTS OF GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN HILLS
  • SUGGESTIONS TO MAKE GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGY MORE POPULAR
INTRODUCTION
Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum Sendt) commonly known as sweet pepper / bell pepper or Shimla mirch, is a member of the family solanaceae and considered as luxury vegetable being used in Pizza making throughout the globe. Its gaining popularity among farmers due to its quick and high returns. Under open conditions, quality and productivity of the produce is poor, which reduces profit margins of capsicum growers. Indo-American Hybrid Seeds, Bangalore was first to introduce green house technology in India in 1965. Total weight of Capsicum inside polyhouse is more than double compared to outside. Light plays an important role on yield in poly house (Marcelis et al., 2006).
There is great scope for protected cultivation of sweet pepper and there is further need to develop IPM practices for management of insect-pests to reduce dependence on pesticide (Singh, et al., 2004).
WHAT IS GREENHOUSE
It is a framed structure covered with transparent or Translucent Material and largr enough to grow crops under partially or fully controlled environment to get maximum productivity and quality produce.
PRINCIPLE OF GREENHOUSE:
Greenhouse effect:
It is also known as greenhouse effect. Greenhouse is generally covered with transparent material such as polythene or glass. Major fraction of sunlight is absorbed by plants and other objects. These objects in turn emit long wave thermal radiations for which cladding material has low transparency. With the result solar energy is trapped and raises the temperature inside polyhouse. This is called greenhouse effect. This rise in temperature is responsible for growing crops in cold climate. During summer months, temperature is brought down by providing cooling device.
History of Greenhouse cultivation in India:
In1965, Indo-American Hybrid seeds, Bangalore was first to apply greenhouse technology in India in commercial production of seeds, ornamental plants and cut flowers
In1990, with support of Agricultural and Processed Food Exports Development Authority (APEDA), Ministry of commerce, govt. of India, and several polyhouse are established by private entrepreneurs at Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad and New Delhi.Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory (DARL),DRDO, at Pithoragarh & Chamoli districts successfully developed polyhouse vegetable production technology for capsicum, tomato, pea, brinjal etc in winter.
Need for protected cultivation:
(Talukdar, 2003) reported following major factors resulted in need for protected cultivation:
· Manifold increase in Production from same unit area
· Better quality Produce - protection from Pests & diseases
· Early maturity
· Round the year cultivation
· Cultivation is possible in hostile climates
· Create micro-climate for optimum plant performance - controlled temperature, humidity and light as per plant requirement.
Structure and components of greenhouse:
  • Tunnel type (cold climate green house)
  • Quonset (semicircular/subtropical green house)
  • Gabble type (slopping roof)
  • Tropical region green house
  • Ridges and furrows green house
  • Ground to ground green house
Quonset type G.I. based polyhouse( dimension-10X4.0X2.25 m ) have been evaluated for off season vegetable production. Fan and pad cooled polyhouses are better than naturally ventilated polyouse. Most commonly used structures of greenhouses are Gable, Quonset (half cylindrical) and Ground to ground.
Components:
1) Frame: The principle consideration in frame selection is its load bearing requirement. The closer the bow spacing of a given tube strength, the greater the strength of the structure and greater the strength.
2) Glazing: The particular polythene sheet has a 3 year service life. To provide maximum energy saving, the two layers must be separated with an air blower. Polythene covering material is rated with in 1, 2 or 3 year service life.
3) End walls: The greenhouse utilizes polycarbonate structural sheets and aluminum doors for the end gables. These materials provide more protection against wind and provide better insulation of the house than glass.
4) Cooling and ventilation systems: Greenhouse need exhaust fans to exchange inside and outside air and to equalize temperatures within the house. If house is not used for summer’s production, the vent and cooling pad fan can be eliminated.
5) Floor: In low tech and medium tech greenhouses floor is bare ground, but in high tech greenhouses heavy plastic is spread on the floor to provide weed barrier.
6) Power and utility sources system: it is very essential for irrigation and other sprays.
7) Benches: Although plants can be gown on the ground, accurate temperature control is difficult to achieve. Benches, therefore, are recommended. There are a variety of bench styles available. Those in this example have a wooden frame and a wire mesh base. They are a relatively inexpensive style of bench. In this example, four rows of benches run the length of the house and stop four feet short of the end gable. Two 4-foot wide benches are placed next to the side of the greenhouse and the middle two are 6-foot wide benches. The middle aisle is four feet wide and the two side aisles are two feet wide. The benches sit on two 16-inch cinder blocks and a 16-inch length of a 2-inch by 4-inch board. The bottom cinder block lies horizontally on the floor. The second block sits vertically on the bottom block, and the wood lies flat across the top block upon which the bench rests. These legs are placed 4 feet on center along each edge of a bench.
Greenhouse- Based on cladding material used
Polyhouse - cladding material used is polythene sheet
Advantage- low cost of installation than glasshouse.
Disadvantage- reduced light in winters, increased humidity.
Glasshouse- cladding material- Cladding material used is glass.
Advantage: High level of light transmission, long life, suited for snow bound area.
Type of greenhouse- Based on cost of installation
Low cost polyhouse/greenhouse- It is also called zero energy chambers, polythene sheet is of700 gauge thickness and supported on bamboo ropes and nails. Temperature increase inside greenhouse 6-100C than outside. Solar radiations entering inside are 30-40% less as reaching outside.
Medium cost Greenhouse- It has High cost than low tech greenhouse. In quonset shaped polyhouses frame-GI pipes are used. Thickness of single layered UV stabilized polythene is 800 gauges. Exhaust fan- are there which are thermostatically controlled. Frames and glazing material has life span of 20 years and 2 years respectively.
High Tech Greenhouse- Frame is made up of Iron or Aluminum. Designs are dome shaped or cone shaped. these are Highly durable, 5-6 times costlier, growing medium used in these type of greenhouses are Peat, Perlite, Solarite, Vermiculite, Rock wool. In India coco- fiber and rice husk are used as growing media as these materials are cheaper. Fertigation and pesticide are sprayed by fogging machine.
Miniature forms of Greenhouses- other miniature structures like plastic low tunnels and net houses also used at a limited extent.
1. Plastic low tunnels:
Plastic low tunnels are miniature form of greenhouses to protect the plants from rains, winds, low temperature, frost and other vagaries of weather. The low tunnels are very simple structures requiring very limited skills to maintain are easy to constructs and offer multiple advantages. For construction of low tunnels, film of 100 micron would be sufficient. The cost of a 100-micron thick film would be about Rs.10/m2.
2. Net houses:
Net houses are used for raising vegetable crops in high rainfall regions. Roof of the structure is covered with suitable cladding material. Sides are made of wire mesh of different gauges. Such structures are useful for NEH region. Sweet pepper, an economically potential vegetable is generally grown at high altitude (> 1000 ft.) but more recently its cultivation in Northern Indian plains is gaining popularity. The fruit size and productivity is very poor because of fluctuations in temperature and attack of fruit borer, aphid, mite and white fly in field conditions.There is a great scope for protected cultivation of Capsicum and there is further need to develop IPM practices for the management of insect pests to reduce the dependence on insecticides.
Advantages of green house technology:
  • Protection from adverse climatic conditions
  • Increase yield 4-5 times than traditional planting
  • Harvesting time can be adjusted
  • Off-season crop produce may be obtained
  • Disease free plants may be obtain
  • More profit due to continuos supply of produce through out the year
  • Water saving as use of drip/sprinkle system
  • Barren and uncultivable land may be brought under use
  • Get more foreign exchange due to export
  • Useful technology for hybrid seed production
  • Employment generating technology
Technology for Protected Cultivation of Vegetables in High Altitudes
Since cropping period is small in high altitude areas, it is difficult to raise vegetables requiring transplanting, such as cauliflower, cabbage, knol-khol, tomato, onion etc. DRDO has standardized trench cultivation method for raising early nursery of vegetables. Seedlings are raised in polythene covered trenches of appropriate size, generally 15' x 5' x 3' during April and transplanted as soon as cropping season starts. This technique has been successfully tried for raising potato seedlings using true potato seed. By this method, the nurseries of improved varieties of above vegetables are raised in large quantity (several lakh) and made available to the growers every year. Certain progressive farmers and local horticulture department have already adopted this technology.
Capsicum crop in solar green houseIn Ladakh, during the long frozen winter months, not a single blade of grass grows in the open. Ladakhis used to laugh at the idea of growing vegetables during, winter, but they themselves are now cultivating in winter season using the protected cultivation technology developed by DRDO. As a result of extensive research and development efforts of DRDO, locally grown greens (leafy vegetables) are now seen in Leh market during severe winter. Capsicum crop in solar green house are grown by adopting polyhouse and trench cultivation techniques, using polyethylene and local material affordable by tribal farmers. A polyhouse of 12 m x 4m x 2 m size is made using poplar and willow wood. It is covered with ultraviolet stabilized white polyethylene film of 200 micron thickness or other films like rigidex. Crop inside polyhouse is covered over night with 150 gauge black film. Trenches of 15' x 5' x 3' size are used for raising winter leafy vegetables. These trenches are kept covered with ultraviolet stabilized polyethylene. During nights another covering with black polyethylene is given. Trench cultivation harnesses soil and sun temperature to induce growth in certain leafy vegetables. The trenches and the polyhouse used for raising leafy vegetables during winter and vegetable nursery during spring are also used for raising cucurbits (cucumber, bottlegourd, longmelon, summer squash etc) during summer (June to September). This technology is becoming popular among farmers
Rain water harvesting for polyhouse:
TIDE is an agency which deals with socioeconomic projects. It was an innovative concept of TIDE where tide experimented with the additional feature of harvesting of rainwater incident on roof of polyhouse. This would offer a security for the crops cultivated inside the polyhouse. An association wth Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra and University of Agricultural Sciences was developed to test the concept,collect data and evolve strategies for replication. In first instance, rainwater harvesting is done for existing polyhouses and collected data for cultivation of capsicum. Data showed that for a polyhouse with a roof area of 176 sq. ms, water security could be offered even with an average rainfall of 300-500mm.
Why greenhouse for vegetable production:
1. Vegetable forcing for domestic consumption and export
During winters in NI region, the temperature and solar radiations are sub-optimal for growing off season vegetables namely tomato, capsicum, brinjal, cucumber, okra and chilli. In tomato, low temperature and low radiation cause puffiness and blotchy ripening. Hence during extreme conditions of winter season (October-February), these vegetables will be cultivated under polyhouse. In a medium cost greenhouse, an yield of tomato and capsicum can be taken @ 98.6-110.5 tonnes/ha and 87.2 tonnes/ha, respectively. The protected environments would be well adapted in the field where winter is prolonged. A polyhouse can be made which will receive sunlight for growing chilli, tomato, brinjal, capsicum and cucumber. The improved varieties and hybrids of these crops would be evaluated. The high priced vegetables- asparagus, broccoli, leek, tomato, cucumber and capsicum are most important crops for production around metropolis and big cities during winter season or off-season. Thus in the NI region during winter, it may be useful to grow tomato and capsicum in plastic tunnels as the plants which are protected from cold and frost will manifest faster and better growth resulting in earlier fruiting than the crops grown in the open.

2. Raising off season nurseries

The cost of hybrid seeds is very high. So, it is necessary that every seed must be germinated. For 100% germination, it requires the controlled conditions. The cucurbits are warm season crops. They are sown in last week of March to April when night temperature is around 18-200C. But in polyhouse their seedlings can be raised during December and January in polythene bags. By planting these seedlings during end of February and Ist week of March in the field, their yield could be taken in one and one and a half months in advance than the normal method of direct sowing. This technology fetches the bonus price due to marketing of produce in the off season.
Similarly, the seedlings of tomato, chilli, capsicum, brinjal, cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli can be grown under plastic cover protecting them against frost, severe cold and heavy rains. The environmental condition, particularly increase in temperature inside polyhouse hastens the germination and early growth of warm season vegetable seedlings for raising early crops in spring summer. Vegetable nursery raising under protected conditions is becoming popular throughout the country especially in hilly regions. Management of vegetable nursery in protected structure is easier and early nursery can be raised. Needless to emphasize, this practice eliminates danger of destruction of nurseries by hail storms and heavy rains because world highest rains occur in this region and the period of rainy season is also wide (April to October). Protection against biotic and abiotic stresses becomes easier.

3. Vegetable seed production

Seed production in vegetables is the limiting factor for cultivation of vegetables in India. The vegetables require specific temperature and other climatic conditions for flowering and fruit setting. Seed production of brinjal, capsicum, cauliflower and broccoli is very difficult in open conditions in this area due to high rainfall at maturity stage. To reduce such micro climatic condition, a protected environment is essential. Therefore, the seed production of highly remunerative crops namely tomato, capsicum and cucumber is performed under protected environments. The maintenance and purity of different varieties/lines can be achieved by growing them under greenhouse without giving isolation distance particularly in cross-pollinated vegetables namely onion, cauliflower and cabbage. Hence, vegetable production for domestic consumption and export in low and medium cost greenhouse is a technical reality in India. Such production system has not only extended the growing season of vegetables and their availability but also encouraged conservation of different rare vegetables.
4. Hybrid seed production
In 21st century, protected vegetable production is likely to be commercial practice not only because of its potential but out of sheer necessity. In vegetable production hybrids seeds, transgenic, stress resistant varieties, micro propagated transplants, synthetic seeds are likely to replace conventional varieties. Protected environments will be helpful in production of hybrid seeds of cucumber and summer squash by using gynoecious lines. Gibberlic acid is used to maintain such lines followed by selfing. The desired pollen can be used for production of hybrid seed of cucumber. Similarly in summer squash use of Ethophan in inducing female flower at every node would help in the hybrid seed production by using desired pollen parent.
5. Maintenance and multiplication of self incompatible line for hybrid seed production
In case of cauliflower, there is problem of maintaining and multiplication of potential self-incompatible lines for the production of F1 hybrid seed. Temporary elimination of the self-incompatibility with the use of CO2 gas has solved this problem. For this purpose, the self-incompatible line is planted in a greenhouse and bees are allowed to pollinate the crop when it is bloom. Then keeping the greenhouse closed tightly, within 2-6 hours of pollination, it is treated with 2-5% CO2 gas which allows successful fertilization by temporarily eliminating the self-incompatibility.
6. Polyhouse for plant propagation
Asparagus, sweet potato, pointed gourd and ivy gourd are sensitive to low temperature. The propagating materials of these vegetables can be well- maintained under polyhouse in winter season before planting their cuttings in early spring-summer season for higher profit.
Trends of farmers towards polyhouse:
A survey was conducted under the project training and demonstration of off season vegetable under protected environment. Area chosen – Darim and Pukhrad villages of Nainital and dhaspad village of Almora district. 82.50% of farmers expressed that poyhouse is beneficial for them. 80.00% of farmers were agreeing that they can cultivate off-season vegetables inside polyhouse throughout year.
Programme for Green house installation by Govt. in Himachal Pradesh.
v Cost may vary state to state and zones, pocket.
v Green being installed by both state department of Agriculture/Horticulture under different schemes financed by the central/state governments.
v State government launched a programme M- Liberal finance assistance in the form of subsidy ranging 30-50% at different time to interested farmers
Protected cultivation of sweet pepper in Indian conditions. :
There is a great scope for protected cultivation of sweet pepper and there is further need to develop integrated pest management practices for management of pests to reduce dependence on pesticides.
Climatic requirements of Bell Pepper under Greenhouse conditions.
Ø Bell Pepper prefers high humidity (70-75%) for proper growth.
Ø RH lower than 70 inhibits fruit set in pepper.
Ø It is highly specific for light requirement.
Ø Leaf can reach maximum photosynthetic activity at a light intensity of about 0.4 cal/cm2/minute.
Ø Partial shade using 30% shading nets promotes vegetative growth at early stage.
Ø At flowering stage bell pepper requires high light intensity.
Maintenance of physiological parameters inside greenhouse for hybrid seed production in capsicum.
Temperature(oc)
Relative Humidity (%)
pH range
Day
Night
22-23
18-19
70-75
6-7
Utility of poly/greenhouse for growing Capsicum Nursery in different zones of Himachal Pradesh.
Zone
Sowing time
Transplanting time
Low-Hills
Mid October (in open)
December ( in polyhouse)
Mid Hills
Mid October-mid November (in polytunnels)
Mid Nov.—mid Dec.
Dry temperate regions
Mid March-mid April
Late April l- May
Precautions for raising Capsicum seedling/ plant in poly/greenhouse.
@ During hot months (may-June), for raising nursery-proper ventilation, use of electric fan for maintaining cool temperature and exhaust fan.
@ In hail prone area use of wire netting above polythene sheet.
@ Hardening of seedlings in polyhouse is done before transplanting in main field as conditions outside polyhouse are harsh for seedlings.
Procedure of hardening.
@ Stop irrigating seedling plants in polyhouse 5-7 days prior to uprooting.
@ At time of uprooting water them well
@ After uprooting expose them to outer conditions by keeping tray/polybags outside in shade. Transplant in evening hours.
@ Tear polybags before plant & irrigate regularly for 3-4 days till get established well.
Effect of plastic greenhouse on plant micro-climate and vegetable crop production.
Ø Capsicum gives significantly higher yield in the green house than outside.
Ø Biomass production by crop is at least 6 fold higher in the greenhouse than outside.
Greenhouse Capsicum Production in mid hills of Himachal Pradesh:-
Type of greenhouse: Low cost naturally ventilated polyhouse
Variety recommended: Indira
Soil mixture: Soil: FYM: Sand(2:1:1)
Time of nursery transplanting: January & July
Mulching: Black polythene mulch
Irrigation: Summers, daily. Winters on alternate day.
Spacing: 45 X 30 cm
Manures and Fertilizers: NPK(50:50:50)
Fertigation: Polyfeed(19:19:19) @ 150kg/ha
Training & Pruning: Pruning all side branches except main branch.
Yield: 65-75t/ha.
Source: Recommendations of Department of Vegetable Science, U.H.F. Nauni, Package of Prctices, Directorate of Extention Education, C.S.K.H.P.K.V.
Major diseases of greenhouse Capsicum:
· Diseases of bell pepper under protected cultivation conditions and their management.
(Gupta et. al, 2005) conducted greenhouse experiment to record the incidence and severity of various bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) diseases and their management. During cultivation, the crop was affected by powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici) and Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora capsici). Among the diseases, powdery mildew was most severe with 84.17% disease severity. In the management of Fusarium wilt and powdery mildew, soil application of Trichoderma harzianum multiplied on neem cake (500 g/m2) and hexaconazole (0.05%) sprays, respectively, were found highly effective in reducing these diseases.
.
Ø Plant health problems affecting capsicum crops can be divided into two groups: 1) pests and diseases that are caused by living organisms, and 2) disorders brought about by chemical or physical causes. Pests include insects and mites. Diseases are caused by pathogens including fungi, viruses, bacteria and nematodes. Disorders cover a variety of problems, like physiological disorders (e.g. sun scald, cracking, blossom-end rot), nutrient deficiency, nutrient toxicity, salt injury, cold injury, damage from pesticides (including herbicides) and damage from gases (ethylene, ozone). This is a brief overview of the main pest and disease problems in capsicums. powdery mildew is most severe disease with 84.17% disease severity.

Fungal Diseases - Affecting Roots

Pythium and Rhizoctonia: are two fungi causing damping-off of seedlings. They arise when plants are weak or under stress (too cold, too wet), also in older crops. Generally Pythium is more active at lower temperature, and Rhizoctonia at higher temperatures. Pythium thrives under wet conditions, also in hydroponics. Symptoms of Pythium are brown roots: while the inside root is rot, the root skin is still intact and can be easily removed. Rhizoctonia typically has brown lesions at soil level.
Phytophthora: infects the main root and the lower stem part. Later the above-ground stem part turns black and the plant wilts and decays. Phytophthora causes soft rot (watery rot). It spreads through soil and water. Infected plants must be removed carefully and good sanitation practices are required.

Fungal Diseases – Above Ground

Downy mildew: shows as a white fungal tissue on the lower side of leaves, and later also on the upper side. Early symptoms are light green spots on the upper side of the leaves (similar to spider mite symptoms). These spots grow and later cover the whole leaf until it falls off.
Sclerotinia: causes shoots to turn brown, often without others signs of fungal infection. When there is enough water, a dense white fungal tissue will develop. It can also affect fruit. Infected material must be removed. When the infection is serious, the soil or medium must be sterilised.

Viral Diseases

Capsicum plants can be infected by several viruses, including tomato (or tobacco) mosaic virus (mechanically transmitted) and tomato spotted wilt virus (transmitted by thrips). Viruses cannot be seen but are detected by plant symptoms which include mottling, distortion or discolouring (flecking, ring patters, mosaic) of leaves and fruit, and stunted or bushy plant shape. It may reduce the production and fruit quality. A virus disease in the crop can not be cured. It is therefore important to prevent virus infection, or when it is detected, to reduce spreading. The new crop must be planted with all possible precautions. Always start from high-quality seed, as inferior seed is a major source of virus. Propagate the plants elsewhere in a greenhouse with insect screening, and have them arrive when your property is perfectly clean. After planting, be alert for the virus symptoms and have these identified. Any infected plant plus the neighbouring plants should be taken out, put in a plastic bag on the spot, and disposed carefully.

Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Several bacterial diseases may affect capsicums. They can cause soft rot, wilting, spots, deformation, leaf drop, and thus devastate the production and quality. Transmission may be by seed, insects or mechanically. It is very difficult to control bacterial diseases in a crop. Prevention is the only viable approach and seedlings and young plants should be treated with full precautions to prevent bacterial diseases. See virus diseases above. Sometimes copper sprays can be helpful.
Diseases Caused by Nematodes
Nematodes are tiny worms normally living in the soil. Some of them may feed on plant roots. One species can cause small knots or galls on the roots of capsicum and other plants. Above ground symptoms may include stunting, yellowing, wilting, lack of vigour. Nematodes can be killed by good fumigation or steaming between crops, but this must be done after the roots are decayed.
Physiological disorders of greenhouse Capsicum:
Blossom end rot: High average leaf area per growing fruit seems to be the central factor inducing BER. Therefore, it is suggested to prune old leaves of sweet pepper plants as being practiced with other greenhouse crops.
Pests
Thrips: Small, long, thin, brown/black insects, with similar shaped larvae which are white/yellow. Thrips feed on flowers and on the lower side of the leaves, causing silver or grey-white spots with black faecal dots. Another symptom is small ‘warts’ on the lower leaf side, caused by egg deposition. High numbers of thrips will prevent flowers setting and can affect plant growth and reduce production. Two thrips pests are found on capsicums: onion thrips and western flower thrips. Both species can transmit tomato spotted wilt virus which can mark fruit and kill plants. Western flower thrips is resistant to most pesticides and for effective control it is important to know which thrips you have. Both thrips can be controlled by a predatory mite, Amblyseius cucumeris.
Two-spotted mite: These are tiny (0.5 mm) web spinning mites, coloured yellow brown with two dark marks on the sides. They feed on the lower side of the leaves, and cause very yellow feeding marks. In severe infestations whole leaves turn yellow and webbing will cover the plant. Successful biological control using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis depends on finding infestations of the pest early and releasing the predator immediately. Broad mite and strawberry (or cyclamen) mite are so tiny that they are difficult to see, but they cause distinct virus-like symptoms (distortion of leaves) and can prevent new growth. If pesticides are used, the plant must be thoroughly wetted. Amblyseius cucumeris may control small infestations of these mites.
Miticides for Greenhouse Crops
Avermectins
Avid
avermectin
greenhouse
two-spotted
contact/ translaminar
long
all stages except egg; takes 3-4 days for kill
Organophosphates
D.D.V.P.
dichlorvos
greenhouse
two-spotted
contact
knock-down
all stages except egg
Dibrom
naled
greenhouse & field
two-spotted
contact
knock-down
all stages except egg
Lagon
dimethoate
field
all mites
systemic
moderate
all stages except egg
Malathion
malathion
greenhouse & field
two-spotted
contact
knock-down
all stages except egg
Orthene
acephate
field
spider mites
systemic/ contact
moderate
all stages except egg
Organochlorines
Endosulfan/
Thiodan
endosulfan
greenhouse & field
cyclamen
contact
moderate
all stages except egg
Kelthane
dicofol
greenhouse & field
all mites
contact
high
adult
Pyridazinones
Dyno-mite/
Sanmite
pyridaben
greenhouse
two-spotted
contact
moderate
larval and nymphal
use only when adult stage is less than 15% of population; use a quick knock-down spray first
Soaps and Oils
Insecticial
Soap
potassium salts of fatty acids
greenhouse & field
two-spotted
contact
knock-down
all stages except egg
Other
Vendex
fenbutatin oxide
greenhouse & field
two-spotted
contact
moderate
all stages except egg
Floramite
bifenazate
greenhouse
two-spotted, Lewis mite
contact
moderate
all stages except egg
Anony. 2006
Aphids: Various aphids are fond of capsicum plants, especially the young leaves in the top of the plants. Symptoms of aphids include sticky honey dew, white empty skins on the leaves, and feeding injury in the form of curling leaf margins, yellow spots, and leaf distortion. Severe infection may cause leaf drop and as a result low production and sun scald on fruit. Aphids stain the fruit with their excrement and may transmit viruses.
Insecticides: Aphids are easily controlled with insecticides.Hence spraying of organophosphorus insecticides like
Dimethoate - 0.03 %
Phosphamidon 0.025%
Malathion 0.05 % ,
Diazion– 0.02% ,
Quinalphos – 0.025% ( Srivastava, 2003).
Other control measures for greenhouse aphids:
Insecticide
Trade name/formulation
Abamectin
Avid 0.15EC
Acephate
1300 Orthene TR
Fenoxycarb
Preclude TR
Pyriproxyfen
Pyriproxyfen
Azadirachtin
Ornazin 3% EC
Bifenthrin
Talstar F, GH, N
Caterpillars: Green loopers are the commonest caterpillar damaging capsicum plants. The first signs of caterpillars are holes in the leaves. Large caterpillars may damage fruit. Green looper and tomato fruit worm are controlled effectively using a biological spray containing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. This is a selective and environmental-friendly spray. The most damaging and difficult to control caterpillar is the poroporo fruit borer, a native species that fortunately only occasionally gets in to crops. The white or pink caterpillars can be found in the fruit.
Whitefly:This is not a severe problem in capsicum. Adults and larvae feed on plant sap and excrete a sticky honey dew staining leaves and fruit. They can be controlled by a parasitic wasp,
Insecticides for leaf-miners in Protected Cultivation
Talstar -bifenthrin
Marathon- imidacloprid
Conserve- spinosad
Avid -abamectin
Precision- fenoxycarb
Adept- diflubenzuron
Pedestal- novaluron
Citation- cyromazine
Azatin XL- azadirachtin
Malathion -malathion
Major constraints of Greenhouse production technology in hills:
Ø Initial high cost of installation
Ø In low tech polyhouse no proper device for controlling/regulating optimum temperature and relative Humidity.
Ø Prevalence of more harsh conditions high rainfall, high incidence of hailstorm in mid hill area, extreme low temperature. Heavy snowfall, strong wind velocity in high hills and use of polyhouse may not be possible without wire netting
Ø Lack of technical know - how among farmers toward greenhouse technology.
Suggestions to make Greenhouse technology more popular:
Ø Reduce cost by using only local material.
Ø Control of temperature and humidity inside low tech polyhouse manually.
Ø For poor and marginal farmers rate of subsidy may be increased.
Ø Increase amount of loan and decrease rate of interest.
Ø Creation of co-operatives by farmers to make best use of polyhouses jointly in arranging materials at cheaper rate.
Ø Transfer of appropriate technology by university or department. They should be given technical know how to farmers by training them.
Ø Appropriate site, location for polyhouse installation.

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